What is an Access Control System in Electronic Security:-

 With the boom in Electronic Security Industry, we want to replace every manual system with the gadgets offered by this market. An Access Control System is the result of this phenomenon, where doors are locked and guarded by an electronic reader which on verifying the identity of a person gives appropriate signals to the electromagnetic lock for opening the door. Interestingly unlike a traditional lock, electronic locking security systems do not have the limitations on number of keys to be carried, as every person carries his smart card in which relevant data is stored about him in electronic form. This data is verified by the reader while swiping of card and then only the person is permitted inside the premises.

Loop Holes of Electronic Security System over a Manual Security System with Guards:-

One of the primary loopholes of such a system is that there is the possibility of a person entering the premises with someone else’s card. Places where there is a process of time attendance also attached with this security system– there is high likelihood of proxy attendance in the corporation.

 Above all, proper care has to be taken to handle the cases of power failures where a door may be accidentally locked. For addressing such cases there has to be a provision of panic switch to open the door in emergency, overriding all security measures.

Role of Biometric Access Control System in such a Scenario:-

 A Biometric Access Control System is able to address the issues and limitations of a card based electronic

system up to a large extent as here the presence of the person himself is necessary near the reader to verify his identity which is simply not verified merely by showing a card. Just like a card based security system which verifies the digital data stored on the card of a person, a biometric access control security system verifies the data pertaining to biometric features of a person. These features can be the parameters like the fingerprint impression, Palm Veins, Iris, Voice, Retina etc.

Various Types of Biometric Door Access Control System:-

Depending on the sensitivity of the place and its threat perception, various kinds of biometric access control systems are used in the premises. If it is just a matter of verification and attendance process, a normal fingerprint biometric security system is sufficient. With its minimum technological needs, a fingerprint access control system is a widely used biometric system in most of the organizations. It is very easy to get the templates registered on reader. Whenever a finger is shown to the reader, its impressions are then compared to the templates stores in reader and accordingly the data is verified.

Similarly there are systems where templates of palm veins, retina, iris & face are used deploying various technologies to detect the corresponding types of biometrics. Every technology has got its own pros and cons, and hence depending on the application the same is chosen in premises.

System Configuration of a Biometric Access Control System:-

A typical Biometric Access Control System consists of following main components:-

  1. Main Controller
  2. D.C Power Supply
  3. Electro Magnetic Lock
  4. Biometric Software
  5. Reader

Here Main Controller is the brain of the system processing all information like entry and exit time of employees, visitors, their verification of biometric data, and then authorizes them to get an entry in the premises by giving suitable signals to the reader for releasing the lock.

At the same time Biometric Software apart from assisting the controller in all its jobs also takes care of other features as programmed and desired like keeping daily time records of entry and exits, maintaining salary records of employees depending upon their daily attendance etc.

At the same time a reader can anything like a retina scanner, fingerprint scanner, palm Vein sensor etc depending on the application. Sometimes readers also come along with inbuilt controllers in them. In such cases there is no need of a separate controller in the system design.

The picture below shows the typical system architecture of a traditional and widely used Biometric/Card Based Access control system:-

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About Rajneesh Chaturvedi

Rajneesh Chaturvedi is the author and owner of the "The Security Systems Academy" Blog. He is a full time sales professional associated with Electronic Security Industry and a part time blogger loves to write about various topics including Electronics Security.